Step 1:  Determine a specific speech goal that fits the audience and occasions

Step 2:  Gather and evaluate information to develop the content of your speech

Step 3:  Organize and develop speech material to meet the needs of your particular audience

Step 4:  Adapt the verbal and visual material to the needs of the specific audience

Step 5:  Practice presenting the speech


Identify Topics:

Good speech topics come from subjects that interest you and that you already know something about.

Subject– broad area of knowledge   Example:  have a broad knowledge of movies, asian art, politics in the middle east.

Topic– a narrower take on the subject.  It’s a subset or specific aspect of a subject.  Example:  Computer technology.  Speech on Deramweaver

List your subjects that interest you (remember, you want to appear credible in your speech.  If it’s a topic that you know about, makes it easier)

Major and Career Interests

Hobbies and Activities

Issues and Concerns

Once you identify your subject, list topics  Brainstorm or Concept Map

Brainstorm-list as many ideas as you can without evaluating them.. if it comes to mind-list it.

Concept Map-a visual means of exploring connections between a subject and related ideas .

Before choosing a topic–you need to analyze your audience

Analyze the Audience:

Audience Analysis-the study of the intended audience for your speech

Audience Adaptation-the process of tailoring your speech’s information to the needs, interests, and expectations of your audience.


You need to gather data to help you understand basic audience characteristics, or demographics

Demographics- demo information includes, audience member’s age, education, gender, income, occupation, race, ethnicity, religion, geographical uniqueness and language.

Audience- how knowledgeable are they on the topic, their interest on the topic, their attitude towards it, and towards you as a speaker

Gather Audience Data (4 methods)

Conduct a Survey- a questionnaire designed to gather information from people.  Can be interviews, or written forms.

Informally Observe- if they are classmates, we can learn a lot from them by watching.  Average age of classmates, ratio of men to women, general cultural makeup.  Listen to learn more.

Question a Representative- When invited to make a speech, ask the contact person for audience information.

Make educated guesses-based on community and kind of people likely to attend

Analyze the Setting:

Setting– the location and the occasion make up the speech setting.

Answer these questions to help you in your topic selection:

1. What are the special expectations for the speech? In our class, the expectation is that you will meet the criteria for the assignment.

2.  What is the appropriate length for the speech?  Choose a topic narrow enough to be accomplished in your time limit

3.  How large will the audience be?  This will affect how you present the speech.  Microphone, visual aids, etc.

4.  Where will your speech be given?  Some rooms may require audio or visual adjustments

5.  What equipment is necessary to give the speech?  Depending on what you need to get your message across, you may need to change topic.  microphone, lectern, flip chart, screen, hookup for laptop.  Bring handouts along as backups!

Select a Topic:  

too simple or complex– get rid of it

will it bore your audience?–get rid of it

is it not suited well for your audience?- get rid of it

are the topics inappropriate for the expectations of the audience or allocated time?-get rid of it

does the topic require equipment not available to you?-get rid of it

Now, choose the topic that is left that is of the most interest to you

Develop a Goal:

1. Identify a general goal-the overall intent of the speech (our first will be to inform)– make sure it is meeting its goal.

2. Phrase a specific goal statement-the specific purpose of your speech, in a single statement that identifies the exact response you want from the audience after they have listened to your speech

For the informative speech, the goal statement will specify whether you want the audience to learn about, understand, or appreciate about the topic.   Page 149 and 150.  Revise it to make it more precise.


Locate Your Sources:

Rely on your personal knowledge, experience and observation:  You can use examples and materials from your own personal experiences.  It bolsters credibility if you can inform your audience of your credentials-your experiences or education that qualifies you to speak with authority on a specific subject.

Secondary Research:  the process of locating information about your topic that has been discovered by other people.  Electronic databases, books, articles, newspapers, encyclopedias, statistical sources, biographical references, government documents, internet-based resources

Primary Research:  the process of conducting your own study to acquire information for your speech.  Surveys, interviews, experiments

Evaluate Your Sources: (based on 4 criteria)

1. Authority– look into the author.  Especially today, your online sources must be checked out.  Watch for URL’s ending in .gov, .edu, or .org (non-commercial sites with institutional publishers)  .com indicates for-profit organization.

2.  Objectivity- be wary of information that is overly slanted.  What is the purpose of the website you landed on.. look for mission statement.

3.  Currency-newer information is more accurate than older.

4.  Relevance- you will come across a ton of information.  Pick the most relevant.  Do not get off track!

Identify and Select Relevant Information:

Factual statements– those that can be verified.  Ex:  preschoolers watch an average of 28 hours of tv a week.  Check facts against other sources on same subject.

Statistics– numerical facts.  It can provide impressive support for a point, but if used wrong, can be boring or deceiving!

1. must be verified

2. must be timely as to not be misleading

3.  use for comparisons–growth, decline, gain or loss

4.  use them sparingly

Examples- specific instances that illustrate or explain a general factual statement

Expert Opinions-interpretations and judgement made by an authority in a particular subject area.  They can explain complex topics and put them into perspective

Elaborations-Anecdotes are brief, often amusing stories.   Narratives are account, personal experiences, tales or lengthier stories.

Comparisons and Contrasts- Comparisons illuminate a point by showing similarities.  Contrasts highlight differences.

Quotations- if something is so well stated and impactful, use it.  Don’t use too many or ones that are too long.  You MUST cite them orally and on paper.

Draw information from multiple cultural perspectives:

Diverse cultural backgrounds are needed sometimes to paint the whole picture.

Record Information:

As you are researching, keep record of facts, opinions and elaborations you will want to use.

Prepare Research Cards- record each piece of information on its own research card.  This helps you to organize your speech.  Make a separate one for each factual statement, expert opinion, or elaboration.

write the keyword or category heading , record the specific fact or opinion, any included quote, and bibliographic information needed for citation.

APA style

Cite Sources within the Speech:

it is crucial to cite your information verbally.  1.) it is plagiarism to present info from secondary sources as your own. 2.) It prevents the audience from accurately evaluating the source of the information  3.)  citing the source adds to your credibility– it shows you have studied your topic

Examples of how to cite orally on Page 157.



1.)  Determine your main points- 2 to 5 central ideas you want to present, each stated as a complete sentence.

2.)  Write a Thesis Statement- this is a 1 to 2 sentence summary of your speech that states your general and specific goals and previews main points of your speech.  It essentially provides a blueprint from which you will organize the body of your speech.

3.)  Write a speech outline- this contains your main points, sub points and sometimes, sub, sub points.  (your main points should be parallel statements)- Example:  The first step, the second step, the third step.

4.)  Make sure your transitions and signposts are well executed.  Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences that show the relationship between or bridge two ideas.  They keep your audience on track.  Transitions are complete sentences that show the relationship between, or bridge major parts of speech.  Signposts- single words or phrases that connect pieces of supporting material to their sub points or main points.


1.) Gain Attention- Starting statements, rhetorical, or direct questions, jokes, personal references, quotations, stories, suspense

2.) Establish listener relevance in your intro-  Include a statement of relevance to your listeners.  Find a link.

3.)  State your Thesis is the Intro-  It tells your audience what to expect from the speech

4.)  Establish your credibility- Why is your topic relevant to you, the speaker?  Why are you credible?  (short)

5.)  Create a bond of goodwill- Be enthusiastic, warm, and friendly.

CRAFTING THE CONCLUSION- a strong conclusion will summarize main ideas and leave the audience with a vivid impression of what they learned.

*Conclusion should be relatively short-  Roughly 35 to 40 words for a 5 minute speech.

1.) Summarize your speech- restate your speech goal and summarize your main points.

2.)  Clincher- a one or two sentence statement that provides a sense of closure by driving home the importance of your speech in a memorable way.  (an appeal for persuasive speech)


1.)  you will be required to name your sources in your oral speech.  Example:  According to..  The Game Commission found.. etc.  You must have 3 sources for this first Informative speech


1.) Have I used a standard set of symbols to indicate structure?

2.) Have I written main points and major subdivisions as complete sentences?

3.) Do main points and major subdivisions each contain a single idea?

4.) Does each major subdivision relate to or support its major point?

5.) Are potential subdivision elaborations indicated?

6.)  Does the outline include no more than one-third the total number of words anticipated in the speech?  We speak roughly 160 words per minute.





  • You want to make sure you establish expertise:  by direct means-you can talk about your education related to topic or your personal experiences/ by indirect means- how prepared you seem to be, how much firsthand involvement you demonstrate through personal examples and illustrations.  (speakers who are overly reliant on notes, or stumble through a presentation won’t seem as credible)   (statistics also give you credibility)


  • You establish trustworthiness by citing your sources.  This shows your audience you are not making anything up.


  • First impressions stick!  Make it a good one.
  • Dress for the occasion
  • Smile at people before you speak
  • Look at the people you are speaking to
  • Appropriate humor
  • Nodding to show you are listening to people



  • Work to be understood when speaking in your second language-  speak at a slower rate, use visual aids to reinforce key terms and concepts
  • Practice, practice!!– in front of friends, family– ask them to take notes on words you mispronounce or misuse.


  • Do not share any language or words that belittle a person or a group of people based on their race, sex, religion, age, class, education, or occupation.
  • Avoid stereotypes-  trailor parks (mobile homes) stewardess (flight attendant)
  • Avoid racy jokes


PRESENTATIONAL AIDS- any visual, audio, or audio-visual material used in a speech for the purpose of helping the audience understand some point the speaker is trying to make.

  • they help to clarify your verbal message
  • they help audience retain information better
  • they help visual learners
  • they are great for persuasive speeches– almost 2 times as effective in convincing people to lean one way or another
  • they help you, the speaker, feel more confident


  • a show and tell– an object that presents itself as an example.  You can be that object as well. If you use descriptive gestures… or use another person to illustrate CPR.  These are presentational aids
  • Models– if an object is too large to use, make a smaller scaled object that will still get the point across.
  • Photographs- help tell a story
  • Drawings and Diagrams- don’t do a sloppy job!! Use compass, ruler, make your drawing look presentable– Stick figures to show proper golf swing, etc.
  • Maps– These are great to orient your audience to landmarks, states, cities, weather systems, etc.  You can buy them, or create them on google maps for your presentation.
  • Charts– are a graphic representation that contains a lot of information and presents it in an easy, boiled down visual format.  Word charts, flow charts and organizational charts are the most common.    Word charts may highlight important points made in a speech.  Flow charts use symbols and connecting lines to diagram the progressions through a complication process.  Organizational charts show a chain of command.
  • Graphs- present numerical information.  Bar graph- uses vertical or horizontal bars to show relationships between two or more variables.  A line graph shows change over time.  A pie graph shows the relationships among parts of a single unit.  2-5 slices typically.
  • Audio and audiovisual aids include video or sound clips.  Keep them short if you are delivering a short speech.  Check with the professor to make sure the length of a video is okay for this class.


  • create aids for important information that the audience needs to understand and remember
  • for ideas that are complex or difficult to explain
  • create aids that are appropriate for the size of your audience
  • limit the number of aids– you don’t want them to be a distraction
  • use media aids only when equipment is readily available– and you KNOW how to use it.  Practice without too, in the event equipment doesn’t work
  • consider preparation time and expenses when choosing aids


  • Limit the reading required by audience (you want them to listen)
  • Customize your aid if it’s from another source.  Don’t keep information that is not relevant to your topic on the aid.
  • May sure your photo, print, or type size can be seen by everyone in the audience.  It has to be big enough.
  • Use a print style that is easy to read.  (avoid fancy styles that your reader has to strain to see)
  • Make sure it’s laid out in a visually pleasing way.  (avoid clutter, neatly prepared, have spaces after ideas, etc.)
  • Have more than just words on your aid.. add some pictures or symbols.  add clip art (don’t overdo it, but enough that it makes it interesting)
  • Use color strategically  (For example, different color for each main point, same colors to show similarities, use red to show important info, no more than 2 or 3 colors though)
  • Use presentation software.. Powerpoint, Adobe’s Captivate, Apple’s Keynote 3


    Biggest fears among people:

    #1 Public Speaking

    #2 Dying

    If you are feeling anxious, you are not alone… 76 percent of experience public speakers feel fearful before presenting a speech.


    • physical-sick to stomach, flushed skin, sweating, shaking, light-headedness, rapid or heavy heartbeat, and stuttering (um, ah, you know, like)
    • Emotional- feeling anxious, worried or upset
    • cognitive symptoms-include negative self talk– the most common cause of speech anxiety!

    These come in three phases:

    1. anticipation phase- anxiety you experience before giving a speech, both while preparing it and waiting in class.
    2. confrontation phase- the surge of anxiety you feel as you begin your speech
    3. as you continue to deliver, your anxiety falls and you reach your adaptation phase. (usually after a minute)  **So prepare to nail the first minute of your speech and the rest should go great!


    • Visualization- helps you develop a mental picture of yourself giving a masterful speech  (athletes use visualization to win the big game!)  (foul shots– those who visually practiced, improved just as much as those who practiced!)
    • systematic desensitization- gradually visualizing and engaging in increasingly more frightening speaking events.  Relax, tense muscles.  While relaxed, visualize yourself giving successively more stressful speeches  (researching, practicing, giving the speech)
    • Constructive Restructuring- helps you systematically rebuild your thoughts about public speaking by replacing anxiety-arousing negative self-talk with anxiety-reducing positive self talk.  It consists of 4 steps:  1.) write down all your fears that come to mind when giving a speech 2.) consider whether these fears are rational.  (most are irrational because public speaking isn’t life threatening.)  3.) Develop positive coping statements to replace each negative self-talk statement.  4.) Incorporate your positive coping statements into your life so they become second nature..  The more you repeat them, the more natural they will become.
    • Public speaking skills training


    • Use a conversational tone- Spontaneity– the ability to sound  natural as you speak.  Learn the IDEAS of your speech instead of memorizing your speech.
    • Be animated!   Lively, and dynamic   Be excited to share this with us!


    • Pitch is the highness or lowness of the sounds of your voice… don’t be monotone, don’t be sing-songy
    • Volume– How loud or soft you speak.  Don’t be too loud, don’t be too quiet.
    • Rate-how fast you talk.  Anxiety causes us to speed up!  Adrenaline gets the blood going and before you know it you are speed talking.  Take a deep breath, and remember to have a good rate.  PRACTICE!
    • Quality- that’s the tone or timbre of your voice. Fran Dresher, Marylin Monroe.

    SPEAK INTELLIGIBLY- We must all be understandable.  Articulation and Pronunciation.


    • Facial expressions
    • Gestures
    • Movement  (motivate movement-  you want to make sure you move with purpose and don’t get caught pacing)
    • Eye Contact-  helps audience concentrate on speech, increases audience confidence in you, helps you gain insight into audience reaction
    • Posture- upright stance, squared shoulders… don’t slouch
    • Poise- graceful and controlled use of body that gives impression speaker is calm, dignified
    • Appearance


    • Practice in front of a mirror, in front of people,
    • Prepare your notecards.  Include reminders to smile, use powerpoint, or show visual


    • PRACTICE– 1. record audio and video of your practice session 2. read through your complete sentence outline once or twice, then put outline away and go from notecards 3. Make the practice as similar to the situation as possible..  stand up and face your imaginary audience, use objects in the room for “people” to practice eye contact 4.  write down the time you begin  5. begin speaking.. keep going even if you mess up..  This is the real-deal (sorta)  6.  write down the time you finish.  compute the length and then adjust and do it again.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s