Persuasive Speaking

TYPES OF PERSUASIVE GOALS:

Proposition of Fact: statement designed to convince your audience that something did or did not exist or occur in the past, is or is not true in the present, and will or will not occur in the future.

Proposition of Value: statement designed to convince your audience that something is good, bad, desirable, undesirable, fair, unfair, moral, immoral, sound, unsound, beneficial, harmful, important or unimportant.

Proposition of Policy: designed to convince your audience they should take a specific course of action.

DEVELOP ARGUMENTS TO SUPPORT YOUR PROPOSITION:

Reasons:
➢ Are they related to proving the proposition?
➢ Do I have strong enough evidence to support a reason?
➢ Will this reason be persuasive for this audience?

TYPES OF ARGUMENTS:

Arguing From Example: when reasons you offer are examples of the proposition or when the evidence you offer are examples of the reason
Arguing From Analogy: when you support your reason with a single comparable example that is so significantly similar to the subject that it offers strong proof
Arguing From Causation: when you cite evidence that one or more events always or almost always bring about, lead to, create, or prevent a predictable event or set of effects
Arguing From Sign: when you offer events as outward signals of the truth of your proposition or reason

AVOIDING FALLACIES IN YOUR ARGUMENT:

Hasty Generalization: a generalization that is either not supported with evidence or is supported with only one weak example.
False Cause: occurs when the alleged cause fails to be related to or produce the effect
Ad hominem: supports a claim by attacking or praising the character of someone or something
Either-or: supports a claim by suggesting there are only two alternatives, when in fact, others exist
Straw person: occurs when a speaker weakens the opposing position by misrepresenting it in some and then attacking that misrepresented (straw person) position.

INCREASING AUDIENCE INVOLVEMENT:

Through Emotional Appeal: you can increase your audience members’ involvement by evoking negative or positive emotions in your speeches. (anger, love, fear, shame)
Through Credibility: the qualifications and personality of the speaker. Competent, moral character, and goodwill towards the audience.
Through Incentives: a reward promised if a particular action is taken or goal is reached. They can be physical (food, shelter, & money,) psychological(self-esteem, peace of mind,) or social (acceptance, popularity, status) rewards

PERSUASIVE BODY LANGUAGE:

You’ll be more persuasive if you do the following things:
➢ Face your listeners as much as possible.
➢ Eye contact is hugely important!
➢ Make your facial expression match your ideas and emotions.
➢ Move on purpose, not skittishly.
➢ Maintain a forward-learning posture, engage the listener.
➢ Relax your face and jaw.
➢ Vary your speaking rate to hold interest.Speak up so people can hear you.

PERSUASIVE ARGUMENT STRUCTURE:

➢ Introduction
➢ State your case
➢ Examine and refute the Opposition
➢ Reconfirm your position
➢ Conclude that your position is superior

Introduction: Inform the listeners about the issue at hand. State the facts that surround the situation.

State your case: Discuss why your way is the best way. Share evidence and expert opinions supporting your position.

Examine and refute the opposition: Recognizing and discrediting the opposing views is vital to your success. Look for flaws, loopholes, and reasons to reject other suggestions. If there are positive aspects of the opposing view, point them out, but compare them to the overall benefit of your case.

Reconfirm your position: Now you need to review the main points of your arguments. Be sure to address any items that may have become issues while refuting the opposition.

Conclude that your position is superior: Be confident in your closing. Based upon all the information just provided, your audience must believe that your way is, indeed, the only way.

ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS:

Statement of Reason: attempts to prove propositions of fact by presenting the best-supported reasons in a meaningful order

Comparative Advantages: attempts to prove that something has more value than something else

Criteria Satisfaction: seeks audience agreement on criteria that should be considered when evaluating a particular idea and then shows how the proposition that the speaker is advocating satisfies the criteria

Refutation: helps you organize your main points so that you persuade by both challenging opposing arguments and bolstering your own

Problem-Solution: attempts to argue that a particular problem can be solved by implementing a proposed solution

Problem-Cause Solution: similar, but has a main point about the causes of the problem and the solution is designed to alleviate those causes

Motivated Sequence: combines problem solution pattern w/explicit appeals designed to motivate the audience to act

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