Communicating in Groups

Characteristics of a Healthy Group:

A healthy group is characterized by ethical goals, interdependence, cohesiveness, productive norms, accountability, and synergy.


  • Ethical Goals- gangs.. not healthy
  • Interdependent—a group in which each member relies on each others skills and knowledge to accomplish a group’s goals.
  • Cohesive—the attraction each group member has to each other and to the groups overall goals.. (members genuinely like each other and respect each others goals.
  • Develop & Abide by Productive Norms—expectations of how each group member will behave (set ground rules)
  • Accountable—group members being held responsible for adhering to the group norms and working towards the groups’ goals.
  • Synergistic—a commonality of purpose and a complementariness to each other’s efforts that produces a group outcome greater than an individual outcome.


Stages of Group Development


  • Forming-the initial stage during which people come to feel valued and accepted
  • Storming-stage where group clarifies goals and determines roles of each member
  • Norming-stage in which group solidifies its rules for behavior, esp. how conflict   will be managed
  • Performing-stage of group development when the skills, knowledge, and abilities of all members are combined to overcome obstacles and meet goals
  • Adjourning-the stage of group development in which members assign meaning to what they have done, and determine how to end or maintain interpersonal relations that have been developed


Types of Groups


  • Family
  • Social Friendship Groups
  • Support Groups
  • Interest Groups
  • Service Groups
  • Work Groups

Conducting the Interview: Listening & Asking the Right Questions

Types of Questions

  • Open Questions

  • Closed Questions

  • Neutral Questions

  • Leading Questions

Do your Research

  • Who Should you Interview?

  • Know Some Background Information

  • Go to websites, online

  • they will open up more if you are familiar with the subject

Conducting the Interview

  • If you are tape recording, ask first

  • Listen carefully (paraphrase)

  • Keep it moving

  • Keep your non-verbal reactions in check

  • Get permission to quote the interviewee

  • Thank them (follow-up thank you note)

Types of Listening

  • Appreciative Listening (casual)

  • Discriminative Listening (Doctor)

  • Comprehensive Listening (Recall)

  • Empathetic Listening (Therapists)

  • Critical Listening (Salespeople)


  • Getting physically ready for the interview

  • Pay attention (don’t look away)

  • Don’t interrupt

  • Look for non-verbals

  • Hear a person out before reacting

Understanding their Message

  • Paraphrase what they said

  • Empathize with the speaker (imagine being in their shoes)

  • Offer supportive messages

    • pg. 58-59

Evaluating their Message

  • Take notes immediately after you leave



Persuasive Speaking


Proposition of Fact: statement designed to convince your audience that something did or did not exist or occur in the past, is or is not true in the present, and will or will not occur in the future.

Proposition of Value: statement designed to convince your audience that something is good, bad, desirable, undesirable, fair, unfair, moral, immoral, sound, unsound, beneficial, harmful, important or unimportant.

Proposition of Policy: designed to convince your audience they should take a specific course of action.


➢ Are they related to proving the proposition?
➢ Do I have strong enough evidence to support a reason?
➢ Will this reason be persuasive for this audience?


Arguing From Example: when reasons you offer are examples of the proposition or when the evidence you offer are examples of the reason
Arguing From Analogy: when you support your reason with a single comparable example that is so significantly similar to the subject that it offers strong proof
Arguing From Causation: when you cite evidence that one or more events always or almost always bring about, lead to, create, or prevent a predictable event or set of effects
Arguing From Sign: when you offer events as outward signals of the truth of your proposition or reason


Hasty Generalization: a generalization that is either not supported with evidence or is supported with only one weak example.
False Cause: occurs when the alleged cause fails to be related to or produce the effect
Ad hominem: supports a claim by attacking or praising the character of someone or something
Either-or: supports a claim by suggesting there are only two alternatives, when in fact, others exist
Straw person: occurs when a speaker weakens the opposing position by misrepresenting it in some and then attacking that misrepresented (straw person) position.


Through Emotional Appeal: you can increase your audience members’ involvement by evoking negative or positive emotions in your speeches. (anger, love, fear, shame)
Through Credibility: the qualifications and personality of the speaker. Competent, moral character, and goodwill towards the audience.
Through Incentives: a reward promised if a particular action is taken or goal is reached. They can be physical (food, shelter, & money,) psychological(self-esteem, peace of mind,) or social (acceptance, popularity, status) rewards


You’ll be more persuasive if you do the following things:
➢ Face your listeners as much as possible.
➢ Eye contact is hugely important!
➢ Make your facial expression match your ideas and emotions.
➢ Move on purpose, not skittishly.
➢ Maintain a forward-learning posture, engage the listener.
➢ Relax your face and jaw.
➢ Vary your speaking rate to hold interest.Speak up so people can hear you.


➢ Introduction
➢ State your case
➢ Examine and refute the Opposition
➢ Reconfirm your position
➢ Conclude that your position is superior

Introduction: Inform the listeners about the issue at hand. State the facts that surround the situation.

State your case: Discuss why your way is the best way. Share evidence and expert opinions supporting your position.

Examine and refute the opposition: Recognizing and discrediting the opposing views is vital to your success. Look for flaws, loopholes, and reasons to reject other suggestions. If there are positive aspects of the opposing view, point them out, but compare them to the overall benefit of your case.

Reconfirm your position: Now you need to review the main points of your arguments. Be sure to address any items that may have become issues while refuting the opposition.

Conclude that your position is superior: Be confident in your closing. Based upon all the information just provided, your audience must believe that your way is, indeed, the only way.


Statement of Reason: attempts to prove propositions of fact by presenting the best-supported reasons in a meaningful order

Comparative Advantages: attempts to prove that something has more value than something else

Criteria Satisfaction: seeks audience agreement on criteria that should be considered when evaluating a particular idea and then shows how the proposition that the speaker is advocating satisfies the criteria

Refutation: helps you organize your main points so that you persuade by both challenging opposing arguments and bolstering your own

Problem-Solution: attempts to argue that a particular problem can be solved by implementing a proposed solution

Problem-Cause Solution: similar, but has a main point about the causes of the problem and the solution is designed to alleviate those causes

Motivated Sequence: combines problem solution pattern w/explicit appeals designed to motivate the audience to act

Special Occasion Speeches

Special Occasion Speeches are:

  • Prepared for a special occasion and a specific purpose

  • These can be informative or persuasive or a mix of both

  • The main goal:

“The function of a special occasion speech is to       entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda.”

For entertainment:
  • Banquets, award dinners, and raosts
  • Usually a light hearted speech with humor
  • They may also expect the speaker to offer some insight into the topic
For celebration:
  • Celebrates a person, place, or an event
  • Examples: Weddings, anniversaries, retirement parties, awards banquets
  • (these all call for speeches that recognize the person or event being celebrated)
  • The speaker praises a subject and the audience expects a certain degree of ceremony
For commemoration:
  • Focus on remembrance and tribute
  • Mark important anniversaries, such as 9/11, anniversary of shootings at Virginia Tech
  • The speeches focus on the events and the people of note at memorials dedicated to them or gatherings held in their honor.
For inspiration:
  • Inaugural addresses, keynote speakers, and commencement speeches all have an inspiration message
  • Usually contain messages and examples of achievement and heroism, many commemorative speeches also inspire audiences as well as pay homage to a person or event being commemorated.
For Social Agenda-Setting:
  • Establishing or reinforcing the goals and values of the group sponsoring the event
  • Examples: fundraisers, campaign banquets, conferences, conventions
  • Speakers are asked to deliver keynote addresses which establish a theme of the meeting and which offer a plan of action related to the theme.
  • A good introduction speech balances four elements: the speaker’s background, the subject of the speaker’s message, the occasion, and the audience.
    • Background
      • Heighten the audience interest. (why are they qualified to speak) Build the speaker credibility
      • You may need to ask for some background info from event organizer or speaker himself.
    • Preview Speaker’s Topic
      • Why is the speaker’s subject of interest to the audience
      • Is the subject timely, significant, relevant to audience.
      • (Be brief in this portion-don’t steal their thunder!)
    • Ask Audience to Welcome the Speaker
      • Cue the audience to welcome.
        • “Please join me in welcoming…

  • I appreciate your kind words
  • Thanks for making me feel welcome today
  • This is a wonderful event, and I appreciate being part of it…

Can be tough to accept an award… hearing all kinds of accolades can leave you feeling a bit awkward…

  • That introduction was so gracious– you were half way through until I realized you were talking about me…

(add humor in some way)

  • Prepare- if you know you might be getting an award, prepare something to say.
  • Esp. if it’s not a surprise–the audience will expect a formal speech
  • React genuinely and with humility
  • Explain why the award is important to you and describe the value you place on it.
  • Tell the audience how it could affect your future and how it gives meaning to what you did to get it.
  • Thank those giving the award and those who helped you in obtaining it.
The goal is twofold:

    • to communicate the meaning of the award
    • to explain why the recipient is receiving it
  • Explain the meaning of the award, what it celebrates, who the award represents, the significance of the name, when it was founded
  • Don’t forget the sponsors or the organization behind the award
  • Talk about the recipient
    • Why the person is getting the award, their achievements, the kind of work they do, the special attributes that qualify him for the award, how the recipient was selected.. etc.
  • Roast- humorous tribute to someone, various people jokingly poke fun at the person.
  • Toast- a brief tribute to a person or an event being celebrated

(both are done to celebrate an individual and his or her achievements)

  • Prepare- you will set the tone and express the purpose for gathering
  • Keep it brief, focus on two of the most unique or recognizable attributes of a person.
  • Keep the tone good natured and brief (don’t embarrass the person being honored)
  • Eulogy- To praise someone who has passed
    • Balance Delivery and Emotion
      • The speakers job is to help others feel better
      • Audience looks to the speaker for guidance
      • If you feel you are going to lose it, take a deep breath, pause–and focus on your next thought.
    • Mention each family member by name and make it clear the deceased was an important part of the family.
    • Focus on the life of the person, not death
      • their contributions and achievements-how their memory will live on
      • talk about their character
      • tell a story (can be humorous)
  • Usually surrounding a business, professional or civic meeting, following a dinner or lunch.
  • Should be lighthearted and entertaining
  • Make sure your speech is relevant to the topic
  • Don’t overdo comedy– Only a few jokes:)  Go with what comes natural to you
  • Can be Social Agenda-Setting
    • Ex. United Way jump starting its campaign
Example: Sermons, Commencement addresses, “pep talks,”

  • Seeks to uplift the members of an audience and help them see things in a positive light
  • Effective ones touch on deep feelings
  • Touch on audience’s emotions
    • use vivid descriptions and emotionally charged words
    • repetition, alliteration, and parallelism.
  • Use real life stories
  • Be Dynamic
  • Make your Goal Clear
  • Consider an Organizing Device
    • Example: Coach– WIN: Work, Intensity, No Excuses
  • Dramatic Ending











Informative Speaking


An INFORMATIVE SPEECH is one whose goal is to explain or describe facts, truths, and principles in a way that stimulates interest, facilitates understanding, and increases the likelihood of remembering.

Characteristics of Effective Informative Speaking

1. Intellectually Stimulating-  new information or information that is explained in a way that piques their interest. (we have different backgrounds in here)  How would you make your speech relevant so it piques interest among classmates?

2.  Relevant- Make sure your audience knows how the information you share is relevant to them.  Do this with each main point..

3.  Creative- when your speech contains different or original ideas.  Good research will aid in this.

4.  Memorable- a lot of information will be given in an informative speech.  Make it memorable so they remember!  Emphasize your specific goal and main points.

Using Presentational aids, repetition, transitions, humor and other emotional anecdotes, and mnemonics and acronyms.

5.  Address different learning styles:  feeling- provide concrete, and vivid images, examples, stories..  watching- visual aids  thinking- rhetorical questions, explanations, statistics  doing- encourage your listeners to do something during or after your speech.

Methods of Informing

1. Description- the informative method used to create an accurate, vivid, verbal picture of an object, geographical feature, setting, event, person, or image.  (visual aid- or provide vivid descriptions or both)

2.  Definition- method of informing that explains the meaning of something.   Can be classifying it or differentiating it from  similar ideas. Can define by giving its history or how it came to exist.  Can define by explaining its use or function.  Can define by using a synonym or antonym. 

3.  Compare or Contrast- focuses on how something is similar to and different from other things.

4. Narration- recounts an autobiographical or biographical event, myth, story or some other account. Tell the story from beginning to end.

5. Demonstration-method of informing that shows how something is done, displays the stages of a process, or depicts how something works. Should be very knowledgeable on the topic.



Step 1:  Determine a specific speech goal that fits the audience and occasions

Step 2:  Gather and evaluate information to develop the content of your speech

Step 3:  Organize and develop speech material to meet the needs of your particular audience

Step 4:  Adapt the verbal and visual material to the needs of the specific audience

Step 5:  Practice presenting the speech


Identify Topics:

Good speech topics come from subjects that interest you and that you already know something about.

Subject– broad area of knowledge   Example:  have a broad knowledge of movies, asian art, politics in the middle east.

Topic– a narrower take on the subject.  It’s a subset or specific aspect of a subject.  Example:  Computer technology.  Speech on Deramweaver

List your subjects that interest you (remember, you want to appear credible in your speech.  If it’s a topic that you know about, makes it easier)

Major and Career Interests

Hobbies and Activities

Issues and Concerns

Once you identify your subject, list topics  Brainstorm or Concept Map

Brainstorm-list as many ideas as you can without evaluating them.. if it comes to mind-list it.

Concept Map-a visual means of exploring connections between a subject and related ideas .

Before choosing a topic–you need to analyze your audience

Analyze the Audience:

Audience Analysis-the study of the intended audience for your speech

Audience Adaptation-the process of tailoring your speech’s information to the needs, interests, and expectations of your audience.


You need to gather data to help you understand basic audience characteristics, or demographics

Demographics- demo information includes, audience member’s age, education, gender, income, occupation, race, ethnicity, religion, geographical uniqueness and language.

Audience- how knowledgeable are they on the topic, their interest on the topic, their attitude towards it, and towards you as a speaker

Gather Audience Data (4 methods)

Conduct a Survey- a questionnaire designed to gather information from people.  Can be interviews, or written forms.

Informally Observe- if they are classmates, we can learn a lot from them by watching.  Average age of classmates, ratio of men to women, general cultural makeup.  Listen to learn more.

Question a Representative- When invited to make a speech, ask the contact person for audience information.

Make educated guesses-based on community and kind of people likely to attend

Analyze the Setting:

Setting– the location and the occasion make up the speech setting.

Answer these questions to help you in your topic selection:

1. What are the special expectations for the speech? In our class, the expectation is that you will meet the criteria for the assignment.

2.  What is the appropriate length for the speech?  Choose a topic narrow enough to be accomplished in your time limit

3.  How large will the audience be?  This will affect how you present the speech.  Microphone, visual aids, etc.

4.  Where will your speech be given?  Some rooms may require audio or visual adjustments

5.  What equipment is necessary to give the speech?  Depending on what you need to get your message across, you may need to change topic.  microphone, lectern, flip chart, screen, hookup for laptop.  Bring handouts along as backups!

Select a Topic:  

too simple or complex– get rid of it

will it bore your audience?–get rid of it

is it not suited well for your audience?- get rid of it

are the topics inappropriate for the expectations of the audience or allocated time?-get rid of it

does the topic require equipment not available to you?-get rid of it

Now, choose the topic that is left that is of the most interest to you

Develop a Goal:

1. Identify a general goal-the overall intent of the speech (our first will be to inform)– make sure it is meeting its goal.

2. Phrase a specific goal statement-the specific purpose of your speech, in a single statement that identifies the exact response you want from the audience after they have listened to your speech

For the informative speech, the goal statement will specify whether you want the audience to learn about, understand, or appreciate about the topic.   Page 149 and 150.  Revise it to make it more precise.


Locate Your Sources:

Rely on your personal knowledge, experience and observation:  You can use examples and materials from your own personal experiences.  It bolsters credibility if you can inform your audience of your credentials-your experiences or education that qualifies you to speak with authority on a specific subject.

Secondary Research:  the process of locating information about your topic that has been discovered by other people.  Electronic databases, books, articles, newspapers, encyclopedias, statistical sources, biographical references, government documents, internet-based resources

Primary Research:  the process of conducting your own study to acquire information for your speech.  Surveys, interviews, experiments

Evaluate Your Sources: (based on 4 criteria)

1. Authority– look into the author.  Especially today, your online sources must be checked out.  Watch for URL’s ending in .gov, .edu, or .org (non-commercial sites with institutional publishers)  .com indicates for-profit organization.

2.  Objectivity- be wary of information that is overly slanted.  What is the purpose of the website you landed on.. look for mission statement.

3.  Currency-newer information is more accurate than older.

4.  Relevance- you will come across a ton of information.  Pick the most relevant.  Do not get off track!

Identify and Select Relevant Information:

Factual statements– those that can be verified.  Ex:  preschoolers watch an average of 28 hours of tv a week.  Check facts against other sources on same subject.

Statistics– numerical facts.  It can provide impressive support for a point, but if used wrong, can be boring or deceiving!

1. must be verified

2. must be timely as to not be misleading

3.  use for comparisons–growth, decline, gain or loss

4.  use them sparingly

Examples- specific instances that illustrate or explain a general factual statement

Expert Opinions-interpretations and judgement made by an authority in a particular subject area.  They can explain complex topics and put them into perspective

Elaborations-Anecdotes are brief, often amusing stories.   Narratives are account, personal experiences, tales or lengthier stories.

Comparisons and Contrasts- Comparisons illuminate a point by showing similarities.  Contrasts highlight differences.

Quotations- if something is so well stated and impactful, use it.  Don’t use too many or ones that are too long.  You MUST cite them orally and on paper.

Draw information from multiple cultural perspectives:

Diverse cultural backgrounds are needed sometimes to paint the whole picture.

Record Information:

As you are researching, keep record of facts, opinions and elaborations you will want to use.

Prepare Research Cards- record each piece of information on its own research card.  This helps you to organize your speech.  Make a separate one for each factual statement, expert opinion, or elaboration.

write the keyword or category heading , record the specific fact or opinion, any included quote, and bibliographic information needed for citation.

APA style

Cite Sources within the Speech:

it is crucial to cite your information verbally.  1.) it is plagiarism to present info from secondary sources as your own. 2.) It prevents the audience from accurately evaluating the source of the information  3.)  citing the source adds to your credibility– it shows you have studied your topic

Examples of how to cite orally on Page 157.



1.)  Determine your main points- 2 to 5 central ideas you want to present, each stated as a complete sentence.

2.)  Write a Thesis Statement- this is a 1 to 2 sentence summary of your speech that states your general and specific goals and previews main points of your speech.  It essentially provides a blueprint from which you will organize the body of your speech.

3.)  Write a speech outline- this contains your main points, sub points and sometimes, sub, sub points.  (your main points should be parallel statements)- Example:  The first step, the second step, the third step.

4.)  Make sure your transitions and signposts are well executed.  Transitions are words, phrases, or sentences that show the relationship between or bridge two ideas.  They keep your audience on track.  Transitions are complete sentences that show the relationship between, or bridge major parts of speech.  Signposts- single words or phrases that connect pieces of supporting material to their sub points or main points.


1.) Gain Attention- Starting statements, rhetorical, or direct questions, jokes, personal references, quotations, stories, suspense

2.) Establish listener relevance in your intro-  Include a statement of relevance to your listeners.  Find a link.

3.)  State your Thesis is the Intro-  It tells your audience what to expect from the speech

4.)  Establish your credibility- Why is your topic relevant to you, the speaker?  Why are you credible?  (short)

5.)  Create a bond of goodwill- Be enthusiastic, warm, and friendly.

CRAFTING THE CONCLUSION- a strong conclusion will summarize main ideas and leave the audience with a vivid impression of what they learned.

*Conclusion should be relatively short-  Roughly 35 to 40 words for a 5 minute speech.

1.) Summarize your speech- restate your speech goal and summarize your main points.

2.)  Clincher- a one or two sentence statement that provides a sense of closure by driving home the importance of your speech in a memorable way.  (an appeal for persuasive speech)


1.)  you will be required to name your sources in your oral speech.  Example:  According to..  The Game Commission found.. etc.  You must have 3 sources for this first Informative speech


1.) Have I used a standard set of symbols to indicate structure?

2.) Have I written main points and major subdivisions as complete sentences?

3.) Do main points and major subdivisions each contain a single idea?

4.) Does each major subdivision relate to or support its major point?

5.) Are potential subdivision elaborations indicated?

6.)  Does the outline include no more than one-third the total number of words anticipated in the speech?  We speak roughly 160 words per minute.





  • You want to make sure you establish expertise:  by direct means-you can talk about your education related to topic or your personal experiences/ by indirect means- how prepared you seem to be, how much firsthand involvement you demonstrate through personal examples and illustrations.  (speakers who are overly reliant on notes, or stumble through a presentation won’t seem as credible)   (statistics also give you credibility)


  • You establish trustworthiness by citing your sources.  This shows your audience you are not making anything up.


  • First impressions stick!  Make it a good one.
  • Dress for the occasion
  • Smile at people before you speak
  • Look at the people you are speaking to
  • Appropriate humor
  • Nodding to show you are listening to people



  • Work to be understood when speaking in your second language-  speak at a slower rate, use visual aids to reinforce key terms and concepts
  • Practice, practice!!– in front of friends, family– ask them to take notes on words you mispronounce or misuse.


  • Do not share any language or words that belittle a person or a group of people based on their race, sex, religion, age, class, education, or occupation.
  • Avoid stereotypes-  trailor parks (mobile homes) stewardess (flight attendant)
  • Avoid racy jokes


PRESENTATIONAL AIDS- any visual, audio, or audio-visual material used in a speech for the purpose of helping the audience understand some point the speaker is trying to make.

  • they help to clarify your verbal message
  • they help audience retain information better
  • they help visual learners
  • they are great for persuasive speeches– almost 2 times as effective in convincing people to lean one way or another
  • they help you, the speaker, feel more confident


  • a show and tell– an object that presents itself as an example.  You can be that object as well. If you use descriptive gestures… or use another person to illustrate CPR.  These are presentational aids
  • Models– if an object is too large to use, make a smaller scaled object that will still get the point across.
  • Photographs- help tell a story
  • Drawings and Diagrams- don’t do a sloppy job!! Use compass, ruler, make your drawing look presentable– Stick figures to show proper golf swing, etc.
  • Maps– These are great to orient your audience to landmarks, states, cities, weather systems, etc.  You can buy them, or create them on google maps for your presentation.
  • Charts– are a graphic representation that contains a lot of information and presents it in an easy, boiled down visual format.  Word charts, flow charts and organizational charts are the most common.    Word charts may highlight important points made in a speech.  Flow charts use symbols and connecting lines to diagram the progressions through a complication process.  Organizational charts show a chain of command.
  • Graphs- present numerical information.  Bar graph- uses vertical or horizontal bars to show relationships between two or more variables.  A line graph shows change over time.  A pie graph shows the relationships among parts of a single unit.  2-5 slices typically.
  • Audio and audiovisual aids include video or sound clips.  Keep them short if you are delivering a short speech.  Check with the professor to make sure the length of a video is okay for this class.


  • create aids for important information that the audience needs to understand and remember
  • for ideas that are complex or difficult to explain
  • create aids that are appropriate for the size of your audience
  • limit the number of aids– you don’t want them to be a distraction
  • use media aids only when equipment is readily available– and you KNOW how to use it.  Practice without too, in the event equipment doesn’t work
  • consider preparation time and expenses when choosing aids


  • Limit the reading required by audience (you want them to listen)
  • Customize your aid if it’s from another source.  Don’t keep information that is not relevant to your topic on the aid.
  • May sure your photo, print, or type size can be seen by everyone in the audience.  It has to be big enough.
  • Use a print style that is easy to read.  (avoid fancy styles that your reader has to strain to see)
  • Make sure it’s laid out in a visually pleasing way.  (avoid clutter, neatly prepared, have spaces after ideas, etc.)
  • Have more than just words on your aid.. add some pictures or symbols.  add clip art (don’t overdo it, but enough that it makes it interesting)
  • Use color strategically  (For example, different color for each main point, same colors to show similarities, use red to show important info, no more than 2 or 3 colors though)
  • Use presentation software.. Powerpoint, Adobe’s Captivate, Apple’s Keynote 3


    Biggest fears among people:

    #1 Public Speaking

    #2 Dying

    If you are feeling anxious, you are not alone… 76 percent of experience public speakers feel fearful before presenting a speech.


    • physical-sick to stomach, flushed skin, sweating, shaking, light-headedness, rapid or heavy heartbeat, and stuttering (um, ah, you know, like)
    • Emotional- feeling anxious, worried or upset
    • cognitive symptoms-include negative self talk– the most common cause of speech anxiety!

    These come in three phases:

    1. anticipation phase- anxiety you experience before giving a speech, both while preparing it and waiting in class.
    2. confrontation phase- the surge of anxiety you feel as you begin your speech
    3. as you continue to deliver, your anxiety falls and you reach your adaptation phase. (usually after a minute)  **So prepare to nail the first minute of your speech and the rest should go great!


    • Visualization- helps you develop a mental picture of yourself giving a masterful speech  (athletes use visualization to win the big game!)  (foul shots– those who visually practiced, improved just as much as those who practiced!)
    • systematic desensitization- gradually visualizing and engaging in increasingly more frightening speaking events.  Relax, tense muscles.  While relaxed, visualize yourself giving successively more stressful speeches  (researching, practicing, giving the speech)
    • Constructive Restructuring- helps you systematically rebuild your thoughts about public speaking by replacing anxiety-arousing negative self-talk with anxiety-reducing positive self talk.  It consists of 4 steps:  1.) write down all your fears that come to mind when giving a speech 2.) consider whether these fears are rational.  (most are irrational because public speaking isn’t life threatening.)  3.) Develop positive coping statements to replace each negative self-talk statement.  4.) Incorporate your positive coping statements into your life so they become second nature..  The more you repeat them, the more natural they will become.
    • Public speaking skills training


    • Use a conversational tone- Spontaneity– the ability to sound  natural as you speak.  Learn the IDEAS of your speech instead of memorizing your speech.
    • Be animated!   Lively, and dynamic   Be excited to share this with us!


    • Pitch is the highness or lowness of the sounds of your voice… don’t be monotone, don’t be sing-songy
    • Volume– How loud or soft you speak.  Don’t be too loud, don’t be too quiet.
    • Rate-how fast you talk.  Anxiety causes us to speed up!  Adrenaline gets the blood going and before you know it you are speed talking.  Take a deep breath, and remember to have a good rate.  PRACTICE!
    • Quality- that’s the tone or timbre of your voice. Fran Dresher, Marylin Monroe.

    SPEAK INTELLIGIBLY- We must all be understandable.  Articulation and Pronunciation.


    • Facial expressions
    • Gestures
    • Movement  (motivate movement-  you want to make sure you move with purpose and don’t get caught pacing)
    • Eye Contact-  helps audience concentrate on speech, increases audience confidence in you, helps you gain insight into audience reaction
    • Posture- upright stance, squared shoulders… don’t slouch
    • Poise- graceful and controlled use of body that gives impression speaker is calm, dignified
    • Appearance


    • Practice in front of a mirror, in front of people,
    • Prepare your notecards.  Include reminders to smile, use powerpoint, or show visual


    • PRACTICE– 1. record audio and video of your practice session 2. read through your complete sentence outline once or twice, then put outline away and go from notecards 3. Make the practice as similar to the situation as possible..  stand up and face your imaginary audience, use objects in the room for “people” to practice eye contact 4.  write down the time you begin  5. begin speaking.. keep going even if you mess up..  This is the real-deal (sorta)  6.  write down the time you finish.  compute the length and then adjust and do it again.